by Frederick van der Ploeg and Cees Withagen
- Our main message is that it is optimal to use less coal and more oil once one takes account of coal being a backstop which emits much more CO2 than oil. The way of achieving this is to have a steeply rising carbon tax during the initial oil-only phase, a less-steeply rising carbon tax during the intermediate phase where oil and coal are used alongside each other and the following coal-only phase, and a flat carbon tax during the final renewables-only phase.
van der Ploeg, F. and C. Withagen (2011). "Too Little Oil, Too Much Coal: Optimal Carbon Tax and when to Phase in Oil, Coal and Renewables." CESifo Working Paper No. 3526, Jul 2011.