by David Anthoff, Robert J. Nicholls and Richard S.J. Tol
- Using the FUND model, an impact assessment is conducted over the 21st century for rises in sea level of up to 2-m/century and a range of socio-economic scenarios downscaled to the national level, including the four SRES storylines. This model balances the costs of retreat with the costs of protection, including the effects of coastal squeeze. While the costs of sea-level rise increase with greater rise due to greater damage and protection costs, the model suggests that an optimum response in a benefit-cost sense remains widespread protection of developed coastal areas, as identified in earlier analyses.
Anthoff, D., R.J. Nicholls and R.S.J. Tol (2009). "The Economic Impact of Substantial Sea-Level Rise." Working Paper FNU-175, September 2009.